Richards intellectual contributions to the establishment of the literary methodology of the new criticism are presented in the books the meaning of meaning a study of the influence of language upon thought and of the science of symbolism 1923 by c k ogden and i a richards principles of literary criticism 1926 practical criticism . Among his critical books principles of literary criticism most directly concerns the deriving of value from the arts especially the art of poetry in many ways the basis of all richards . Other articles where principles of literary criticism is discussed ia richards pioneer work on semantics and principles of literary criticism 1924 and practical criticism 1929 companion volumes that he used to develop his critical method the latter two were based on experimental pedagogy richards would give students poems in which the titles and authors names had been removed . Principles of literary criticism a book is a machine to think with but it need not therefore usurp the functions either of the bellows or the locomotive richards i a 1924 principles of literary criticism the chief lesson to be learnt from it is the futility of all argumentation that precedes understanding. Further muddying the linguistic waters was richards unfortunate comment that only those who were of sound mental faculties could develop the requisite critical skills still despite the ongoing brouhaha principles of literary criticism established the need to pay very close attention to reading skills that we now call close reading
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